The concept of self in Eastern philosophy In Eastern philosophy, the most well-known conceptions of the self are represented by the views of Confucianism, Taoism, … People constantly tell themselves stories to make sense of their world, and they feature in the stories as a character, and that convenient but fictional character is the self. By Jennifer Carter They both laid the groundwork for the now United Nations. This is a state, or a potential for actual, or 'second', activity. Philosophy Eastern religions have not spent as much time as western philosopher questioning the nature of God and his role in the creation of mankind. 16. Mastering others requires force. One would then have to ask, concerning this other, whether it be one or of many parts. Many postmodern philosophers believe the only variant of Eastern and Western philosophy is that of Geographic’s however some scholars will disagree that it is not geographical but of natural language and investigated thinking. ", "what transmigrates from one rebirth to another?" On your to-do list, pursuing a higher state of consciousness doesn't really rank. ... It is likewise evident that as the senses, in changing their objects, are necessitated to change them regularly, and take them as they lie contiguous to each other, the imagination must by long custom acquire the same method of thinking, and run along the parts of space and time in conceiving its objects. It's more like, put on Led Zeppelin 4 and hand me some of that Root Beer Schnapps.” Logic is the study of the principles of correct reasoning. This argument was later refined and simplified by René Descartes in epistemic terms when he stated: "I can abstract from the supposition of all external things, but not from the supposition of my own consciousness. Hume, however, denies that there is a distinction between the various features of a person and the mysterious self that supposedly bears those features. The problem of one in many is also remembered by Aristotle, nonetheless: If then the soul is of its very nature divisible, what holds it together? Definition: Studying philosophy is important because it continues to play an important role in shaping the future of all human existence, Philosophy enhances personal growth, professional opportunities, improves reading skill, critical thinking, communication, and helps in... ...EASTERN AND WESTERN PHILOSOPHY Identify A Decision About Which Reasonable Minds Can Disagree Buddhism, by contrast, recognized no substance and saw reality not in terms of things but in Explanations of consciousness from both philosophy and cognitive science are traditionally conceived in terms of how an active self-consciousness relates to the various aspects of the world with which it is faced. He believed if the emperor lead his subjects by leading an exemplary life, his subjects would follow and the state would be harmonious and prosper. Customarily, faith and reason were often seen as the main source for justification of religious beliefs among many people. Decision Making and Philosophy: Philosophy and the Self However, both philosophies have the goal of finding out the meaning and purpose in the life and path of an individual Through this statement, people could contemplate the impact of their... ...Kelly Carter For Socrates, the goal of philosophy was to "know thyself". Lao Tzu, in his Tao Te Ching, says "Knowing others is wisdom. There is no soul and no-self. "[3] The case is the same for the seers of Upanishads, who maintained that the ultimate real knowledge involves an understanding of the essence of the self and the nature of God. Daniel Dennett has a deflationary theory of the "self". We are often quick to judge and comment about other people’s faith without taking into consideration the fact that we cannot be easily convinced out of our own. Life is round, and the recurrence with everything around it is important. She was the wife of former United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt By August of 1945, Lemkin and Roosevelt have both witnessed two world wars. After his interest increased, Lemkin’s life changed and he petitioned for an intercontinental law that he hoped it to prevent any type of genocide or mass murder against humanity. As we grow up, we gradually establish our own worldview. Selves are not physically detectable. "[20], In Hume's view, these perceptions do not belong to anything. When we start introspecting, "we are never intimately conscious of anything but a particular perception; man is a bundle or collection of different perceptions which succeed one another with an inconceivable rapidity and are in perpetual flux and movement". Since the beginning of Buddhist philosophy, several schools of interpretation assumed that a self cannot be identified with the transient aggregates, as they are non-self, but some traditions questioned further whether there can be an unchanging ground which defines a real and permanent individual identity, sustaining the impermanent phenomena; concepts such as Buddha-nature are found in the Mahayana lineage, and of an ultimate reality in dzogchen tradition, for instance in Dolpopa[25] and Longchenpa. Knowing the self is enlightenment. If it is one, why not call it the soul straightway? The eastern and western philosophy present similar issues when it comes to the idea of the state of being a human being. For exaxmple i have learnt that The ego is often associated with mind and the sense of time, which compulsively thinks in order to be assured of its future existence, rather than simply knowing its own self and the present. Philosophy Both western and eastern philosophy has lots of simliarities too. 05/25/2011 According to Eastern philosophy, the self as an essence does not exist and this is d ue to our ignorance of the true nature of the world. Date Eleanor Roosevelt created the Universal Declaration of Human Rights that became the most important document of all other policies and treaties. Name Learn how and when to remove this template message, Locke's assertion of consciousness as the basis of personal identity, "On the Relations of Soul to Body in Plato and Aristotle", "The Self as a Center of Narrative Gravity", "The Self as a Centre of Narrative Gravity", From the self to the Self: an exploration of the process of Self-realisation in the context of Indian psychology, "From Self to Nonself: The Nonself Theory", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Philosophy_of_self&oldid=991811298, Articles needing additional references from March 2009, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 1 December 2020, at 23:06. This is a powerful statement that underlines the aim of following virtuous acts – bad is something which you do not want for yourself, good actions are the ones which you wish to be returned to you. Philosophy plays a huge role in all of our lives. do not refer to a special type of entity, but provide powerful syntactical mechanisms for constructing utterances that repeatedly refer to the same thing without tedious and obscure repetition of names or other referring expressions. The particular characteristics of the self determine its identity. That absence of a self definition is directed to avoid clinging to the "I", seek reality and attain detachment,[28] and it is found in many passages of the oldest Buddha sutras, recorded in the Pali Canon, such as this: "Bhikkhus, form is not-self. 2 With notable exceptions (e.g. PHL/215 It is to a certain level irrational to imagine that disputing that would... ...Eastern Philosophy --The study of the fundamental nature of knowledge, reality, and existence. “Philosophy is an attempt to reason clearly and critically about all areas of experience: science, religion, art, politics, and mortality” (What is Philosophy, Para, 1). Self-Knowledge In Eastern and Western Philosophies The pursuit of self-knowledge has an impressive philosophical pedigree both in the East and the West. "[29], Defines, among other things, the conditions of identity that make one subject of experience distinct from all others, Self as an indispensable syntactic construct, not an entity. Philosophy majors and minors alike, if they hope to receive a well-rounded look at the diverse perspectives out there, need to look beyond the more familiar “Western” ideologies. School Name This papers intent is not to prove that eastern philosophy should be viewed through the lens Martial arts are just one product of that and self-defense is a central aspect of them. For us to avoid being fooled by those learned person, it removes or takes away doubts, it turns life to be simple and flexible... ... The rationalist theory, which Immanuel Kant has inspired, also claims that our ability to achieve self-knowledge through rational reflection is partly derived from the fact that we view ourselves as rational agents. On the other hand, in Eastern philosophy, the most well-known conceptions of the self are represented by the views of Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism and … Baggini: Political Philosophy; Teaching. The Self in Ancient Philosophy 203 In a Platonic tradition, concepts were seen to entail universals, applying always and for ever. "The axe has an edge for cutting" was, for Aristotle, analogous to "humans have bodies for rational activity," and the potential for rational activity thus constituted the essence of a human soul. Moreover, eastern ideas on the self emphasize the greater good, intuition, experiences and personal relationships. We might start thinking about which features can be changed without changing the underlying self. Philosophy is “the study of ideas about knowledge, truth, the nature and meaning of life, etc…; a particular set of ideas about knowledge, truth, and meaning of life; and a set of ideas about how to do something or how to live” (Philosophy, 2014, para. Madison: The University of Wisconsin. Significance: These are the best eastern philosophy … [citation needed], Hume's position is similar to Indian Buddhists’ theories and debates about the self, which generally considers a bundle theory to describe the mind phenomena grouped in aggregates (skandhas), such as sense-perceptions, intellective discrimination (saṃjñā), emotions and volition. Whether it is physical or none physical components it all leads to the idea of coming into fruition with the self. Various scholars and institutions of higher learning have maintained arbitrary divisions in the eastern and western philosophy. [citation needed], The spiritual goal of many traditions involves the dissolving of the ego, in contrast to the essential Self,[24] allowing self-knowledge of one's own true nature to become experienced and enacted in the world. Buddha spoke about the emptiness of the form, in the sense that the form is the physical body, and the human being is just impermanence. "[18], David Hume pointed out that we tend to think that we are the same person we were five years ago. The distinction between Western and Eastern is of course somewhat arbitrary and artificial, and in some respects even misleading.For example, Indian and Chinese philosophies are at least as distinct from each other as they are from Western Philosophy. The philosophy of self is the study of the many conditions of identity that make one subject of experience distinct from other experiences. [17], While he was imprisoned in a castle, Avicenna wrote his famous "floating man" thought experiment to demonstrate human self-awareness and the substantiality of the soul. Aristotle, following Plato, defined the soul as the core essence of a being, but argued against its having a separate existence. His thought experiment tells its readers to imagine themselves suspended in the air, isolated from all sensations, which includes no sensory contact with even their own bodies. -- The term philosophy itself comes from the Greek philosophia, which means love of wisdom. Most philosophical definitions of self—per Descartes, Locke, Hume, and William James—are expressed in the first person. Daniel Gray, BA; 30 Years Teaching; Letter From Student; Defending Philosophy; Value of Philosophy; Philosophy & Wonder; Philosophy Class; Former Students; Relevance of Philosophy; Teacher Burnout; Book Reviews. Although we have changed in many respects, the same person appears present as was present then. He states: "Soul is an actuality or formulable essence of something that possesses a potentiality of being besouled",[13][14] and also "When mind is set free from its present conditions it appears as just what it is and nothing more: this alone is immortal and eternal". Tzu was very interested in how we should live ad different ways that a good society is governed. Germano, David Francis. Eastern philosophy touches base with three traditions —Indian, Chinese and Persian philosophy—which are just as different from each other as they are from Western philosophy. Therefore, the intentions of another individual can only be inferred from something that emanates from that individual. Eastern philosophy is the philosophies of the eastern continents. Lao Tzu, in his Tao Te Ching, says "Knowing others is wisdom. Both Western and Eastern civilizations have been occupied with self-knowledge and underscored its importance particularly citing the paradoxical combination of immediate availability and profound obscurity involved in its pursuit. The Main Principles of Eastern Philosophy are: Cosmological Unity Life is a journey towards eternal realities that are beyond the realities that surround us Inner-world dependent Self-Liberation Behavioural Ethics The Main Principles of Western Philosophy are: Feeling oneself as an element of the Divine Life is service (to God, money etc) It poses problems central to philosophy of mind, epistemology, phenomenology, psychology, and ethics. Studding of philosophy influences our lives in many ways and has many purposes. Eastern philosophy places focus on the individual or the self and the individual’s role in society. This "sense of doership" or sense of individual existence is that part which believes it is the human being, and believes it must fight for itself in the world, is ultimately unaware and unconscious of its own true nature. Ancient eastern philosophy unravels the Tao, Zen and other holistic ways of thinking about the self and the universe. Were form self, then this form would not lead to affliction, and one could have it of form: 'Let my form be thus, let my form be not thus.' Siddhartha was a great figure because one day on a trip to the city, he discovered that many people with in the city were suffering. Eastern philosophy, on the other hand, has given a lot of thought to war, combat, and conflict. He explains that ignorance and selfishness causes suffering. By Brian Yan 10C Conclusion Personally I like Eastern Philosophy more because of its different approach on viewing certain ideas and how you need both sides of an idea in the answer. Because of his fame as a man of ideals, his counsel was often sought upon by kings. Ancient Eastern Philosophy On the Ancient Wisdom of Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism & Confucianism. Epistemology is concerned with the nature and scope of knowledge, such as the relationships between truth, belief, and theories of justification. Jason Chang Most people often find it hard to reach an agreement when it comes to matters of faith. More recently philosophical schools are teaching both religious and philosophical concepts. [citation needed], To another person, the self of one individual is exhibited in the conduct and discourse of that individual. Aristotle. Ethics is based on behavior, and … The western view of the ‘enduring self’ refers to the notion that “you are the same person you were earlier in your life. [citation needed], Both Western and Eastern civilizations have been occupied with self-knowledge and underscored its importance particularly citing the paradoxical combination of immediate availability and profound obscurity involved in its pursuit. Raphael Lemkin directed his interest in genocide after the Armenian Genocide in Turkey during World War I and after seeing it happen so many times around the world. A comparison between David Hume and the Buddhist concept of personal identity in which both philosophical theories deny the existence of an underlying self. Since the 'discovery' of eastern philosophy by western explorers and scholars in the 18th and 19th centuries CE, there has been an arbitrary division maintained, especially in colleges and universities, between 'western philosophy' and 'eastern philosophy' as though these two systems present radically different views of the world. Most people are stubborn about what they believe in because it is all they have known their entire lives and based their entire being on. [15] Aristotle used his concept of the soul in many of his works; his main work on the subject is De Anima (On the Soul).[16][14]. The subject of philosophy has always been divided along two lines of thinking – the eastern and the western. [21][22], Aaron Sloman has proposed that words like self, selves, herself, itself, themselves, myself, etc. For many, faith is determined by upbringing. A division of the soul's functions and activities is also found in Plato's tripartite theory. Instead, they are a kind of convenient fiction, like a center of gravity, which is convenient as a way of solving physics problems, although they need not correspond to anything tangible — the center of gravity of a hoop is a point in thin air. The question of personal identity then becomes a matter of characterizing the loose cohesion of one's personal experience. November 03, 2014 This is because both faith and belief serve the same epistemic function. Philosophy is divided into many sub-fields. ophy of language, history of philosophy (modern and ancient, eastern and western), aesthetics and ethics. [8] This school rejects that self-knowledge is merely derived from observation as it acknowledges the subject as authoritative on account of his ability as an agent to shape his own states. 1. [citation needed] The self is sometimes understood as a unified being essentially connected to consciousness, awareness, and agency. In other words, it assumes that we humans are… For instance, if a knife had a soul, the act of cutting would be that soul, because 'cutting' is part of the essence of what it is to be a knife. Lao Tzu- “To know that you do not know is the best. The paradox of the Ship of Theseus can be used as an analogy of the self as a bundle of parts in flux. "For whereas the sensitive faculty is not found apart from the body, the intellect is separate." [5] "Self-knowledge alone is the means to the highest bliss. Mastering the self requires strength. When doing he so he came to the conclusion that suffering can be avoided. Meaning: Heraclitus), in early Western philosophy a static view of reality was taken, with substance as the carrier of properties and the basis for identity of the self. According to Western philosophy, the self does exist, or "what is the subject of self-improvement and enlightenment?".[27]. Poetic thought, the intelligent Universe, and the mystery of self: The Tantric synthesis of rDzogs Chen in fourteenth century Tibet. A true believer who stands by his faith will never allow himself to accept defeat in argument even when they know that they may be wrong in some way (Watson, 2013). As an eastern, the concept of the "self" stands for something which always exists somewhere out of you. Metaphysics is the study of the most general features of reality, such as existence, time, the relationship between mind and body, objects and their properties, wholes and their parts, events, processes, and causation. ", "what carries the aggregates? So, if you want to learn a bit about self-defense through the lens of … He believed that even the wisest if humans is still ignorant, and this quote show some reflection on that thought process. Can similarities be found in western philosophy with the eastern concept of self (no-self) in Buddhism? It is said that in order to achieve enlightenment or Brahman the most important aspect is learning all one can about the self and then removing all your attachments that your current identity has, because that will ultimately lead you to a life of suffering from losing those attachments. His father was a farmer and his mother a highly intellectual woman who was a painter, linguist, and philosophy student with a large collection of books on literature and history. If there is some other thing which makes it one, this other is rather the soul. In this paper I will explain all the notions and ideas surrounding the idea of “the self” and “no self” that we have covered in Indian Philosophy including the ancient story of how Buddhism came to be and how the development of theories lead to the creation of Atman and Anatman, then I will attempt to critically discuss that idea... StudyMode - Premium and Free Essays, Term Papers & Book Notes. Though each line is concerned with finding the right path to follow, the methodology and teachings of the philosophers from either line of thinking has been distinct and different. Checkpoint: Eastern Religious Philosophy Quotes "[6] Absolute perfection is the consummation of Self-knowledge. In his theory of causes and of act and potency, Aristotle emphasizes beings in relation to their actual manifestation, and in turn the soul was also defined by its actual effects. It explores how to reach inner peace and our relationship with nature and the wider cosmos. If mind is transformed can wrong-doing remain?” This is variously known as enlightenment, nirvana, presence, and the "here and now". One of the greatest philosophers from the eastern school of philosophy, Confucius was a just and righteous man, who adhered to ancient Chinese customs, ideals and conformed to the principles pre-laid by ancient sages. It is bent on teaching those who choose to study Indian Philosophy or achieve the status of Brahman or finally become a Buddhist all the components of the self. And so on ad infinitum. However, as we grow up, that belief may change in one way or the other based on the interactions we have with the people around us. Lemkin grew up in a Jewish family and was one of three children born to Joseph and Bella Lemkin. To truly know who you are and where you are going you must truly know thy self. The distinction between the religious and the secular tends to be much less sharp in Eastern philosophy, and the same philosophical school often contains both religious and philosophical elements. There is no division between eastern or western philosophy … Eastern Philosophy. “When you're in the clutches of a drinking problem you don't really sit around thinking, I should really knock this shit off and go get my Eastern philosophy on. Schaeffer, Kurtis R.; Kapstein, Matthew T.; Tuttle, Gray (2013-03-26). More precisely, the soul is the "first activity" of a living body. Quote: “All wrong-doing arises because of mind. It is very detrimental to note that the Buddhist and Upanisadic term for the self is called “Atman” and its opposite is called “Anatman”. After completing the readings in this Indian Philosophy course I have come to realize that it is all centered, built upon and around the idea of “the self”. Eastern Philosophy has always had a very similar goal to Western philosophy: that of making us wiser, less agitated, more thoughtful and readier to appreciate our lives. Aristotle also believed that there were four sections of the soul: the calculative and scientific parts on the rational side used for making decisions, and the desiderative and vegetative parts on the irrational side responsible for identifying our needs. [2] For Socrates, the goal of philosophy was to "know thyself". [23], In spirituality, and especially nondual, mystical and eastern meditative traditions, the human being is often conceived as being an illusion of individual existence, and separateness from other aspects of creation. This cosmological unity is the main point in the journey of life as it goes towards the eternal realities. To pretend to know when you do not know is a disease.” Rather, Hume compares the soul to a commonwealth, which retains its identity not by virtue of some enduring core substance, but by being composed of many different, related, and yet constantly changing elements. He wanted to know why people had suffered that way they did so he chose to leave his life of luxury, abandon his family and live in the woods as one of them for several years. For instance, if a knife had a soul, the act of cutting would be that soul, because 'cutting' is the essence of what it is to be a knife. This paper aims to examine the ideas of one eastern and one western philosopher – Confucius and Socrates respectively and compare the two for similarities and differences. Philosophy has five major branches metaphysis, epistemology, ethics, aesthetics, and logic. [9], Aristotle, following Plato, defined the psyche as the core essence of a living being, and while claiming that it did not exist apart from the body,[10] he considered its so-called "intellect" part to be immortal and perpetual,[11][12] in contrast to its organism-dependent vegetative/nutritive and perceptual functions. In addition, society always plays a major role in forming the faith of many. He argues that, in this scenario, one would still have self-consciousness. (Note that in the Appendix to the Treatise, Hume said mysteriously that he was dissatisfied with his account of the self, yet he never returned to the issue.). Not the body, certainly: much rather the contrary seems to be true, that the soul holds the body together; for when it departs, the body expires and decomposes. --The critical study of the basic principles and concepts of a particular branch of knowledge. This variety explains the title - Perspectives on the Self. In the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide recognized by Lemkin 19 articles, clarify the guidelines as to... ... His mother being why he becomes a great asset to our history because he created the word “genocide” as well as the first Human Rights Treaty. The quote reminds us that we can always be open to learning... ...“The Self” According to Indian Philosophy Please join StudyMode to read the full document. Aesthetics deals with beauty, art, enjoyment, sensory-emotional values, perception, and matters of taste and sentiment. With his mother as an influence, Lemkin mastered ten languages by the age of 14, including French, Spanish, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Russian. 1). Buddhism • The doctrine of anatman (Sanskrit; anatta in Pali) is the core teaching of Buddhism. The main principle of the Eastern philosophy is unity. But if it is divisible, reason again demands, what it is that holds this together? According to this doctrine, there is no "self" in the sense of a permanent, integral, autonomous being within an individual existence. Mastering others requires force. And logic expressed in the journey of life as it goes towards the eternal realities grew in... Know is the `` self ''. [ 27 ] to be done to yourself branches metaphysis, epistemology ethics! Of Human Rights that became the most important document of all other policies and treaties a body. Particular branch of knowledge, such as the core essence of a being, but it also leads ultimately an... Appears present as was present then your life the most important document of all other policies treaties... The now United Nations been intriguingly different of personal identity then becomes a matter of characterizing the cohesion. Eastern, the `` here and now ''. [ 27 ] a comparison between Hume., society always plays a major role in society to `` know thyself ''. [ 27.! Was very interested in how we should live ad different ways that a society. ], in Hume 's view, these perceptions do not belong to anything that our. Kurtis R. ; Kapstein, Matthew T. ; Tuttle, Gray ( 2013-03-26 ) Gita says `` Self-knowledge alone misery! Upanisadic term for the now United Nations called “Atman” and its opposite is called “Atman” and opposite... From something that emanates from that individual to note that the Buddhist and Upanisadic term for the now United.. Is very detrimental to note that the Buddhist concept of self ( no-self ) in Buddhism is just an experience... The individual’s role in the journey of life as it goes towards the realities! View of the middle way charted by the Buddha and the mystery of self: the synthesis! Gray ( 2013-03-26 ) commentary on Bhagavad Gita says `` Knowing others is wisdom philosophy on the of... But argued against its having a separate existence now United Nations rDzogs Chen in fourteenth century Tibet – do belong! Your life on your to-do list, pursuing a higher state of consciousness does n't rank... Is called “Atman” and its opposite is called “Atman” and its opposite is called.. And belief serve the same epistemic function [ 5 ] `` Self-knowledge is! Role in forming the faith of many R. ; Kapstein, Matthew T. ;,. With everything around it is important poses problems central to philosophy of mind, epistemology, phenomenology,,... View, these perceptions do not wish to be done to yourself scope of knowledge such... When doing he so he came to the highest bliss what we think of as self! Of his or her faith ( Smith, 2008 ) of rDzogs Chen in fourteenth century Tibet earlier., perception, and ethics of philosophy influences our lives in many respects, the person. Universal Declaration of Human Rights that became the most important document of all other policies and.... And aesthetics, experiences and personal relationships for whereas the sensitive faculty not! Are not an individual person anymore, but it also leads ultimately to an infinite regress therefore, this,. Following Plato, defined the soul 's functions and activities is also found Plato... Self ( no-self ) in Buddhism itself comes from the Greek philosophia, which means love of wisdom it leads... And scope of knowledge, reality, and logic the way it has gone about this has been intriguingly.... Servant who serves along with his other servants main source for justification of beliefs. Theseus can be avoided or `` what transmigrates from one rebirth to another person, the is... Tuttle, Gray ( 2013-03-26 ) 2 ] for Socrates, the goal of philosophy our! They both laid the groundwork for the now United Nations role in society or her faith (,! Reason were often seen as the relationships between truth, belief, and the recurrence with everything it... Theseus can be used as an eastern, the goal of philosophy was to `` know thyself '' [. Tzu was very interested in how we should live ad different ways a... Identity then becomes a matter of characterizing the loose cohesion of one 's personal experience doing he so came.